Future of computers

According to (Cicret Bracelet, 2016) (1510846)

Wearable technology has become very famous in the technology market now days. As we know there, lots of additions of the wearable technology has been produced in the market but the latest breakthrough in the market and by far the most exclusive one is “The Cicret Bracelet”. It is a wearable technology that is like a tablet but made only for the wrist.

This unique idea was given by Guillaume Pommier and 3 of his more friends. This Wearable technology is to be produced to replace the use of electronic devices and tablets.

The Cicret Bracelet

According to (Cicret Bracelet, 2016)

It can project a touch screen onto the arm, it is basically designed for making work easily done and it can help us to have an access to the apps without touching the mobile. But this device is still in the pending state and has not been publically published Tough the designers of Cicret Bracelet have built a website where we can get every type of information and details regarding the product .(According to Do You Want to Know a Cicret?, 2016: The video was last updated on February 4, 2015). This revolutionary device will be available in 10 colors and probably it may be wider than 10mm.

Features

This technology also has features like Processor, memory, Vibration response, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity also having the sensors and projection system. It is water resistant and durable.

How does it work?

According to (Edwards, 2014)

The Cicret Bracelet uses a tiny Pico Project that creates a projection of the mobile screen on the arm. It also contains an 8 Proximity Sensors that will copy an image of the device screen to the arm. It also detects the fingers position so as to control the system on the arm. When the user touches the arm with finger so that touch will automatically interrupt one of the sensors and then it will send the instructions to the main processor. And Flickering of the wrist will initiate the display on arm.

Flick, swipe, pinch and zoom functions will be maintained when tapped to text a message or a message or email is being received. And can easily answer to the call with just a flick with the arm.

The Cicret App

According to (Do You Want to Know a Cicret?, 2016)

The Cicret App is a simple way of communication that allows unrestricted and protected one-to-one conversation solution, those people who want to chat; share and exchange information, pictures and videos can be done securely without being traced. Even if we send a message it can be edited after sending the message as well. So now, pressing the stressful ‘send’ button will not be stressful as it seems to be.

Zcan Wireless- World’s 1st Wireless scanner Mouse

According to (Indiegogo, 2016)

Zcan Wireless is motorized by Dacuda SLAM Scan®, the technology behind the mouse scanner, was invented in Switzerland. It is created on latest developments in robotics and computer vision research.  This technology supports easy access to data, text and pictures, instant deletion as well as easy division of contents.

Zcan Wireless is an important device in upcoming time for anyone with an iPad, MacBook, tablet or laptop. It is as easy as painting we just have to swipe back and forth. Zcan Wireless lets us to scan everything even in any size whether it is a receipt, a cash voucher, a photograph, a newspaper or any information written in a different language. The best thing is that the scanned information can be searchable, and understandable. It will have a backup file as well.

According to (Innovation, 2016)

Zcan wireless mouse is in short, what you see is what you scan based device. Swipe over pictures and documents is been instantly appeared on the monitor. We can quickly edit this file or document in word or excel straight away

Zcan Wireless is a 2-in-1 product promoter which gives us portability needs to effectively finish any work at any time.

Features

  • Can easily scan any type of documents.
  • Use for direct scanning purpose from paper or books.
  • Can scan images easily.
  • Pronounce out words that we scan.
  • Can understand any kind of language

 

References

Do You Want to Know a Cicret?. (2016). [online] snopes. Available at: http://www.snopes.com/photos/technology/cicret.asp [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

Edwards, L. (2014). The Cicret Smart Bracelet puts a touch-controlled projector on your arm. Move over Google Glass – Pocket-lint. [online] Pocket-lint.com. Available at: http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/131460-the-cicret-smart-bracelet-puts-a-touch-controlled-projector-on-your-arm-move-over-google-glass [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

Matthews, K., Raposo, K., Jensen, M., Raposo, K. and Matthews, K. (2014). The Cicret Bracelet brings a whole new meaning to wearables. [online] KnowTechie. Available at: http://knowtechie.com/the-cicret-bracelet-brings-a-whole-new-meaning-to-wearables-126/ [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

The bracelet that turns your ARM into a touchscreen. (2014). [online] Mail Online. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2871401/The-bracelet-turns-ARM-touchscreen-Cicret-projects-emails-videos-games-skin.html [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

The Cicret Bracelet: Wearable Technology That Makes Your Skin Function As A Touchscreen. (2014). [online] Vulcan Post. Available at: https://vulcanpost.com/95161/cicret-bracelet-make-skin-touchscreen/ [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

Indiegogo. (2016). CLICK HERE to support Zcan Wireless – World’s 1st Wireless Scanner Mouse. [online] Available at: https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/zcan-wireless-world-s-1st-wireless-scanner-mouse#/ [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016].

Innovation, D. (2016). Design to Innovation (DTOI) Introduces World’s First Wireless Scanner Mouse. [online] Prnewswire.com. Available at: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/design-to-innovation-dtoi-introduces-worlds-first-wireless-scanner-mouse-269201511.html [Accessed 9 Mar. 2016].

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Virtual memory

Translation lookaside Buffer (TLB) (1510846)

According to (WhatIs.com, 2016)

TLB is a cache that memory administration equipment uses to enhance virtual address interpretation speed. The dominant part of desktop, tablet, and server processors incorporates one or more TLBs in the memory management hardware, and the pages or the segmented virtual memory used in any hardware is shown constantly shown.

In short, TLB is a cache memory that basically stores recent translations for fast retrieval among the virtual memory and physical memory.

When a program is referenced by a virtual memory address, the search begins in the CPU. The instruction caches are searched at the first. If these fast caches do not contain the required memory then, the system looks up the memory’s physical address at this time; the physical memory checks the TLB for a quick reference in the location

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Translation Look aside Buffer Miss

According to (Eranian and Mosberger, 2016)

  • Hardware TLB miss handling: In such situation, the CPU moves forward and to find the right PTE it runs around the page table. If the PTE is present, then the New translation of TLB is been downloaded by the CPU. Otherwise, a page fault is raised by the CPU and passes it to the operating system.
  • Software TLB miss handling:In such situation, miss fault is merely raised by the CPU.  The operating system interrupts this fault that raises the TLB miss handler as a reaction. Then the miss handler runs this page table in software and if it is matched to the PTE which is marked as an existing then the TLB inserts the new translation. If the PTE is not found, the page fault handler gets all the control.

 

The Translation Look aside Buffer (TLB) also supports the multi-use computers, so that they can keep the memory separate by having a user and a supervisor mode also consists of some permission to read and overwrite the bits to empower sharing.

Due to Multitasking and code errors, TLB can face some performance issues. This degradation of the performance is known as Cache Trash. Cache trash is brought about by a continuous PC action that neglects to progress because of extreme utilization of assets or clashes in the caching system.

Translation Look aside Buffer Hit

Basically TLB Hit is the physical page containing the address that is in form of mapping in the memory.

The virtual address and the physical address of a reference contains a translation in the TLB that can be used to complete the memory reference in the hardware without the association of software. When a page is deleted from the main memory, translations for that page are also deleted from the TLB.

Cache in Virtual memory

According to (Eces.colorado.edu, 2016)

Present microprocessor have high clock rates. Joining that with structures that take into consideration parallel execution puts an expansive strain on the memory framework. Since memory keeps on developing in limit, and expanding capacity diminishes performance, huge element RAM utilized for fundamental memory isn’t sufficiently enough for the processor. To determine this issue, processors use caches.

Caches are small memories that contain a subset of the whole memory. Ideally, the whole arrangement of memory that a system must utilize can fit in the cache, permitting it to run altogether from this fast small memory. These caches take benefits of two basic properties of programs. Programs ordinarily will get information that it just entered. This is known as spatial locality. Moreover, programs ordinarily get to information more than once, so information that has just entered is likely to be entered again. This is known as temporal locality.

 

 

References

Eces.colorado.edu. (2016). Virtual Memory and Caching. [online] Available at: http://eces.colorado.edu/~coxaj/software/memsim/memsim.html [Accessed 27 Apr. 2016].

Eranian, S. and Mosberger, D. (2016). Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) | Virtual Memory in the IA-64 Linux Kernel | InformIT. [online] Informit.com. Available at: http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=29961&seqNum=4 [Accessed 27 Apr. 2016].

Google.ae. (2016). TLB – بحث Google‏. [online] Available at: https://www.google.ae/search?q=TLB&espv=2&biw=1517&bih=714&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj11YKdqK_MAhXnIMAKHZ-nBmUQ_AUIBygB&dpr=0.9#tbm=isch&q=translation+lookaside+buffer&imgrc=57Ha26P9t8UoUM%3A [Accessed 27 Apr. 2016].

WhatIs.com. (2016). What is translation lookaside buffer (TLB)? – Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/translation-look-aside-buffer-TLB [Accessed 27 Apr. 2016].

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Famous people in IT

Summary

Tim Berners Lee is one of the most famous British Computer Scientist. He is known as the father of the World Wide Web (www). He is also called the maker of the world’s first Web browser and editorial manager. He established the World Wide Web Foundation and has likewise coordinated the World Wide Web Consortium (w3c).

He only realized that there is a need for a network that helps the people to communicate all over the world, while working at CERN, the researchers and users needed a way to Impart their information to others, so by the late 1980’s he raised a proposition today make a worldwide hypertext document utilizing the Internet. A couple of more years working in the same field gave birth today to the World Wide Web. Which made Tim Berners lee a standout amongst the most famous and successful creators of the modern world.

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Early life

According to (Bizer, Heath and Berners-Lee, 2009)

  • From 1969 to 1973, sir Tim completed his primary education from Sheen Mount primary school before moving on to London’s Independent Emanuel school.
  • In 1973, he enrolled at The Queen’s College of university of Oxford.
  • He was graduated in 1976 with a top class degree in physics.

Career

(W3.org, 2016) described as:

  • Sir Tim was selected as an engineer at the telecommunication’s company, named as Plessey in Poole. There he worked on distributed transaction processing, message transferring and bar code innovations.
  • Then Tim joined D.G. Nash Ltd. Here he composed typesetting programming for wise printers and had done multitasking functions.
  • 1970’s, Tim started working as an individual advisor and functioned in lots of enterprises, comprising CERN.

While working at CERN he composed a program called “Enquire” for his own particular use. It was a hypertext project which laid the best approach to build up the World Wide Web in future.

In this company thousands of people used to work they used to share their data and work through emails and they had to keep a track of altered things.

Tim while working there recognized that the workers need a better and easier way to share their information with each others. He started to work on a proposal for an essential way to communicate within the organization. Which lead to the invention of the WWW (a way of sharing information that could be used all over the world)

According to (Berners-Lee and Fischetti, 1999)

  • The world’s first website (Info.cern.ch) came into being at CERN on August 6, 1991. This site was supposed to give information about WWW and the methods how to use it to communicate and share information with others.
  • First WWW server of Tim that he invented was “httpd” and his first Client was “WWW what-you-see-is-what-you-get” hypertext browser and editor.
  • Sir Tim also founded the WWW Foundation and was also the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (w3c).
  • And currently Sir Tim is among the important personalities behind the data.gov.uk, it is a project ok UK Government to make the non personal data of the government obtainable to the public.

 

Inventions

  • Tim Burners Lee invented the World Wide Web (www) a standout amongst the enormous innovations of the twentieth century.
  • He also invented Hypertext Transfer Protocol, HTML and Web Brower

Achievements

(Achievement.org, 2016) said that:

  • In 1995, The Association for Computing Machinery(ACM), awarded sir Tim for The Software System
  • He was also named as an important person in the top most 100 people of the current century.
  • He was recompensed with Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering in 2013.
  • Tim became one of the top five Internet and Web developers. 

    References

    Berners-Lee, T. (2016). Tim Berners-Lee | Speaker | TED.com. [online] Ted.com. Available at: https://www.ted.com/speakers/tim_berners_lee [Accessed 2 May 2016].

    Bizer, C., Heath, T. and Berners-Lee, T. (2009). Linked Data – The Story So Far. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, 5(3), pp.1-22.

    Internethalloffame.org. (2016). Tim Berners-Lee | Internet Hall of Fame. [online] Available at: http://internethalloffame.org/inductees/tim-berners-lee [Accessed 2 May 2016].

    World Wide Web Foundation. (2016). Sir Tim Berners-Lee. [online] Available at: http://webfoundation.org/about/sir-tim-berners-lee/ [Accessed 2 May 2016].

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Virtual memory

According to Rouse (2014), sometimes, it may happen that the RAM of a user’s computer doesn’t have enough space to hold other programs, in such a case, virtual memory is used which is one of the features of operating system. This memory moves some data from RAM and stores it for a short period of time to a particular area in disk storage. According to Microsoft (n.d.), the process of moving data from RAM to the disk storage is very useful as it creates more space in the RAM for more data to be stored. If some of the user’s programs are not working so fast and are taking a lot of time to load, then it is better to use more RAM as it will make them run faster. However, it is also possible to increase the virtual memory so that more data can be transferred to the disk storage and hence, more space in the RAM can be made but however, data can be loaded onto the computer from RAM much faster so it is better to use more RAM instead.

According to C (2008), virtual memory plays a very important part in a computer. Without it, we won’t be run as many programs as we usually do on our computers. If there were no virtual memories and some user had a 64 MB RAM, he would constantly keep getting error messages whenever he would try to load some programs because that much storage capacity isn’t enough.  However, the disadvantage of this memory is that if the RAM is full then the computer will make more use of virtual memory to store and process programs which will slow its speed down. It is important to not put all the load on the virtual memory due to which the user should try to create some free space in the RAM or else the process of moving the data from RAM to the hard disk, where the virtual memory resides, and from there to RAM will keep on repeating and hence, it will dial down the speed of the computer and this process is called thrashing.

An important thing to know about virtual memory is mapping. According to Schaffer (2014), map is basically used for directing a particular program’s address to one of the address space of RAM and when there is no space left in the RAM for another program to run in, the map basically directs the remaining program addresses to the virtual memory in the disk storage.

If there is a data or a program in RAM that has been there for a very long time as compared to all the other programs running there and some extra program is required to be stored in the RAM but there isn’t any space left, the map takes that particular old program from its address location in the address space and moves it to the hard disk in order to create space for that new program in RAM.

hh(Source: Schaffer (2014))

In this example, the RAM formerly held the program 0 at RAM address 1 and it was also the first program that got loaded in the RAM but however, when the new program 3 came into the picture and was required to reside in the RAM, program 0 moved to the virtual memory in the disk and created space for program 3 in the RAM and this is how the process goes on. However, when the computer wants to access the files inside the disk, it takes a lot of time for them to open. Virtual memory mapping can also help secure a program and keep it from being used or shared with other programs in the RAM but however, sometimes, it is required for some programs running in RAM to share certain stuff. Mapping can be used for that purpose as well. if there are certain functions of two programs that they want to share with each other then those parts of both the program will be directed to one particular address in RAM so they can access each other’s functions.

hg(Source: Schaffer (2014))

 References

 

 

 

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High Performance Computers

According to insideHPC (n.d.), high performance computers have the ability to perform vast number of operations accurately and fast including the operations that can be used for finding the solution for complex problems related to different fields like science, mathematics etc. It is due to these wide variety of operations for different purposes available on these computers that mark them out from other regulars PCs. Since these computers have high complexity and are way more powerful, fast and can handle more problems than regular PCs, they are quite expensive. Some of the most amazing high performance computers can cost even millions of dollars.

According to Rouse (2007), these high performance computers are also sometimes called supercomputers. Since these computers are very useful and powerful, they are being used by different businesses and companies around the world. Scientist working in laboratories often need to use a computing device to perform operations that a normal computer won’t be able to perform. Under such circumstances, they make use of the potential of high performance computing devices. Now days, the demand for these computers became incredibly high for many companies as they have to find a proper management and operational system for their data and turning to high performance computers is a great and fast way to do that. It is believed that in future, every company regardless of whether it is big or not, will take benefits of these computers for their own betterment.

There are many high performance computers in this world and there number is continuously increasing. According to National Geographic (n.d.) cited by Storm (2012), these computers are so powerful and can perform different calculations so fast and accurately in just few seconds no matter how many calculations it has to perform in fact, even if the number of calculations that these machines could solve in just a second were to be solved manually by number of human beings, it will perhaps take them a lifetime to do so. This proves how fast these computers can be and how useful they are for the companies that need to handle large amount of data and get the result fast.

However, these computers also have some disadvantages, according to Storm (2012), titans are one of the largest computers in the world so they require a huge amount of space to be placed in and on top of that, since they are incredibly powerful, they use enormous amount of electricity and when these computers are heated up, it takes a lot of work to cool them down. In spite of some of its disadvantages, these computers also make a use of Graphic processing unit which makes it extremely useful for the video gamers to play their games at an amazing speed.

According to Pavlus (2014), these computers produce a lot of sound while performing some task and the sound produced is extremely loud and damaging, in fact, a person can’t be around these computers for long while its producing such sounds or it may cause a bad effect on a person’s hearing ability unless they take the precaution of wearing something that prevents the sound from entering their ears.

There are many other powerful high performance computers out there. According to BBC news (n.d.), shaheen II is one of them. This computers was developed in Saudi Arabia and it is the first time that a supercomputer created in middle east became one of the best supercomputers in the world. Its memory has an amazingly large storage capacity of 790 TB and just like Titan, this machine is incredibly fast and can perform vast amount of calculations in just a second that human beings would take plenty of years to perform. This machine was made by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology for research purpose and they invested millions of dollars for its development, which in the end, was worth it.

According to insideHPC (n.d.), high performance computers have the ability to perform vast number of operations accurately and fast including the operations that can be used for finding the solution for complex problems related to different fields like science, mathematics etc. It is due to these wide variety of operations for different purposes available on these computers that mark them out from other regulars PCs. Since these computers have high complexity and are way more powerful, fast and can handle more problems than regular PCs, they are quite expensive. Some of the most amazing high performance computers can cost even millions of dollars.

According to Rouse (2007), these high performance computers are also sometimes called supercomputers. Since these computers are very useful and powerful, they are being used by different businesses and companies around the world. Scientist working in laboratories often need to use a computing device to perform operations that a normal computer won’t be able to perform. Under such circumstances, they make use of the potential of high performance computing devices. Now days, the demand for these computers became incredibly high for many companies as they have to find a proper management and operational system for their data and turning to high performance computers is a great and fast way to do that. It is believed that in future, every company regardless of whether it is big or not, will take benefits of these computers for their own betterment.

There are many high performance computers in this world and there number is continuously increasing. According to National Geographic (n.d.) cited by Storm (2012), these computers are so powerful and can perform different calculations so fast and accurately in just few seconds no matter how many calculations it has to perform in fact, even if the number of calculations that these machines could solve in just a second were to be solved manually by number of human beings, it will perhaps take them a lifetime to do so. This proves how fast these computers can be and how useful they are for the companies that need to handle large amount of data and get the result fast.

However, these computers also have some disadvantages, according to Storm (2012), titans are one of the largest computers in the world so they require a huge amount of space to be placed in and on top of that, since they are incredibly powerful, they use enormous amount of electricity and when these computers are heated up, it takes a lot of work to cool them down. In spite of some of its disadvantages, these computers also make a use of Graphic processing unit which makes it extremely useful for the video gamers to play their games at an amazing speed.

According to Pavlus (2014), these computers produce a lot of sound while performing some task and the sound produced is extremely loud and damaging, in fact, a person can’t be around these computers for long while its producing such sounds or it may cause a bad effect on a person’s hearing ability unless they take the precaution of wearing something that prevents the sound from entering their ears.

There are many other powerful high performance computers out there. According to BBC news (n.d.), shaheen II is one of them. This computers was developed in Saudi Arabia and it is the first time that a supercomputer created in middle east became one of the best supercomputers in the world. Its memory has an amazingly large storage capacity of 790 TB and just like Titan, this machine is incredibly fast and can perform vast amount of calculations in just a second that human beings would take plenty of years to perform. This machine was made by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology for research purpose and they invested millions of dollars for its development, which in the end, was worth it.

References:

  1. BBC News. (n.d.). Saudi supercomputer enters top ten list – BBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-33506479 [Accessed 28 Mar. 2016].
  2. (n.d.). What is high performance computing? – insideHPC. [online] Available at: http://insidehpc.com/hpc-basic-training/what-is-hpc/ [Accessed 28 Mar. 2016].
  3. Pavlus, J. (2014). Building Titan: The ‘world’s fastest’ supercomputer. [online] Bbc.com. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20121026-a-supercomputing-titan [Accessed 28 Mar. 2016].
  4. Rouse, M. (2007). What is high-performance computing (HPC)? – Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] SearchEnterpriseLinux. Available at: http://searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com/definition/high-performance-computing [Accessed 28 Mar. 2016].
  5. Storm, D. (2012). Meet the fastest, most powerful science machine in the world: Titan supercomputer. [online] Computerworld. Available at: http://www.computerworld.com/article/2473620/high-performance-computing/meet-the-fastest–most-powerful-science-machine-in-the-world–titan-super.html [Accessed 28 Mar. 2016].
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Emerging Data storage

DNA Data Storage Drive (1510846)

According to (Greenwood, 2016)

Scientists have developed a way of storing huge amount of information that can last up to billion years which can be even longer than the human race itself in just a single molecule of DNA. DNA is basically a device to store data. Ewan Birney, the associate director of the European Bioinformatics Institute, and Nick Goldman, a research scientist were the main developers of the device DNA data storage

images (1)

How do it works?

According to (WhatIs.com, 2016)

DNA Data Storage is a process of encoding and decoding binary data on and from synthesized strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). In nature, the living cells and organisms using genetic blueprints contains the DNA molecules.

Storing binary digital file as DNA, the binary digits are converted from 1 and 0 to the letters A, C, G, and T. These are the four main compounds in DNA: Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. If we want to recover the data it can be easily done through, the sequence A, C, G, and T representing the DNA molecule. It is decoded back into the original order of bits 1 and 0.

Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have encoded audio, image, and text files into a manufactured DNA molecule about the size of a dust grain, and then it successfully read the information from the DNA to recover the files, claiming 99.99 percent accurateness.

An understandable advantage of DNA storage is that it should be used for daily practical use it should also have the ability to store huge amount of data in media having small physical volume.

A less clear, but perhaps more substantial advantage of DNA storage is its durability. Because DNA molecules can last for thousands of years, a digital archive encoded in this form could be recovered by people for many generations to come. This durability might determine the troubling vision of our digital age; it is a big loss to past because of the comparative insubstantiality of optical, magnetic, and electronic media.

The disadvantages of DNA storage for today use is that it is very slow in encoding  and has a very high cost, although the DNA might improve its speed for current use and it may have some backup applications too for saving the data and improves the primary storage.

How much Data can be stored in DNA?

  • Goldman and co- creative said that around 2.2 petabytes of data can be stored in 1 gram of DNA.
  • DNA would allow at least 100 million hours of high-definition video to be stored in a teacup.

According to (Connor, 2015)

In contrast, an ounce (28 grams) of DNA could fit on a penny, it stores 300,000 terabytes of memory and paleontologists have shown the information stored in DNA recovered from fossils can survive for up to a million years.

Features

  • Long-lived, stable and easily synthesized.
  • Needs no active maintenance.
  • Stores digital files without electricity for thousand years.
  • Last for tens of thousands of years.
  • Can store 2.2 petabytes in a gram.
  • Highly reliable.

Eternal 5D

According to (Physics-Astronomy, 2016)

The Scientists at the University of Southampton’s Optoelectronics Research Centre are behind the disk. They have taken this surprising step further, announcing that they have provided a method to the store data that could last longer than the human race itself. The Eternal 5D (dimensional) storage disk, It is a device to store lots of data and information in a single disk.

glass-disc-University-of-Southampton.jpg

How do it works?

According to (The Huffington Post UK, 2016)

The data itself is written within the glass using a tiny, precise laser. The laser then creates a three layered pattern of dots which in turn changes the way of passing the light through the disc.

A specially developed optical reader can then identify the light passing through and turn it back into digital information.

Properties

  • 360 TB/disc data capacity.
  • Thermal stability up to 1,000°C and.
  • Virtually unlimited lifetime at room temperature (13.8 billion years at 190°C ).
  • Very Stable.
  • Safe form of portable memory.

 According to (CCM, 2016)

The researchers hope that this technology, nicknamed as the “Superman memory crystal,” could one day replace today’s Blu-ray technology. In comparison, Blu-ray discs can store up to 23.5 GB and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. But now the current technology of the Blu-ray technology can store 500GB on a single disc by using 20 layers and last about 7 years.

image -1.jpg20cc5e40-c13c-43e5-b9d5-27f1ccfe29a2Large-1.jpg

Said (Professor Peter Kazansky, ORC, 2015):

“It is thrilling to think that we have created the first document which will likely survive the human race. This technology can secure the last evidence of civilization: all we’ve learnt will not be forgotten”.

 

References

Connor, S. (2015). How scientists could use DNA to store huge quantities of information. [online] The Independent. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/single-dna-molecule-could-store-information-for-a-million-years-following-scientific-breakthrough-10459560.html [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].

BetaNews. (2016). Eternal 5D nanostructured glass optical discs hold 360TB of data and last billions of years. [online] Available at: http://betanews.com/2016/02/16/eternal-5d-nanostructured-glass-optical-discs-hold-360tb-of-data-and-last-billions-of-years/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2016].

CCM. (2016). 5D Data Storage Disc is “Eternal”. [online] Available at: http://ccm.net/news/27183-5d-data-storage-disc-is-eternal [Accessed 14 Mar. 2016].

Greenwood, V. (2016). Goodbye Silicon, Hello DNA. The Future of Data Storage?. [online] TIME.com. Available at: http://science.time.com/2013/01/24/goodbye-silicon-hello-dna-the-future-of-data-storage/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2016].

Physics-Astronomy. (2016). Eternal 5D Data Chip Can Record All Of Human History | Physics-Astronomy. [online] Available at: http://www.physics-astronomy.com/2016/02/eternal-5d-data-chip-can-record-all-of.html#.Vubs3vl97IU [Accessed 14 Mar. 2016].

WhatIs.com. (2016). What is DNA storage? – Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/DNA-storage [Accessed 14 Mar. 2016].

 

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Emerging data storage technologies

According to http://www.techopedia.com (n.d.), in IT, data storage basically means saving the data that can be accessed by a computer or other devices easily and the medium that actually stores the data are called data storage technologies for example, CD, USB, Hard disk etc. There are plenty of such technologies available all over the world now days and almost every year, new and much better data storage technologies are created for people’s use.

According to aBriefHistory (2014) , Even since the beginning of time, whenever human beings would get an information, they would struggle with finding a way to store the information permanently by using different methods. Many businesses also had to face a lot of issues due to the loss of the information they held about their various items. This, however, paved a way for the development of machines that could hold data for the people and it wasn’t long before sophisticated data storage machines were made that couldn’t just hold the data, but also perform some operations on them. In fact, in 1881, a man named Herman Hollerith created an amazing device with the ability of storing and processing the data entered which soon led the USA to finally sum up their total population in just one year, which in the past, would basically take about eight years to do so.

According to http://www.itdonut.co.uk (n.d.), hard drives are one of the most used and fast data storage devices out there and is also quite cheap. In fact, a hard drive with the data storage capacity of 500 GB can be purchased at a remarkably cheap price which makes it very affordable. There are two types of hard drives, internal and external. Internal hard drives are basically present inside each computer and can store various files inside it. If a computer can have the ability to maintain an additional internal hard drive, a user can put another one as well.

External hard drives are very similar to the internal hard drives but they are not present inside a computer, a user can carry these hard drives with him and can use them for multiple computers. A great advantage of these type of external data storage devices is that you can keep a copy of your original files in them so that in case your internal hard drives gets damaged or if your computer catches a virus and stops working, you can have a backup of all your important files on your external hard disk and can access them with another computer.

Helium drives

According to http://www.backblaze.com (2015), Helium drives are one of the newest upcoming data storage technology that can store 10TB of data. What makes this drive different from a regular hard disk is that other hard drives are filled with air which is way more dense than helium so the resistance provided to the disk inside a regular hard drives to stop spinning is more than that provided to the disk inside a helium hard drive due to which less power is required to spin its disk so the disk moves faster. According to BitByte (2015), these drives do not vibrate or produce sounds as much as other hard drives do while performing some task and in addition to that, since the power generated will be less, the heat used by the drives will also be less. However, the disadvantage of these drives is the cost. Since it can store 10TB and uses helium technology, it is quite expensive.

Shingled Magnetic Recording

According to SeagateTechnology (2013), whenever we store something on a regular hard drive, it is stored in tracks which are quite closer to each other and play an important role in the capacity of data storage as the amount of data to be stored depends upon the number of tracks but however, the size of the data stored in a track is quite small. With Shingled Magnetic recording, a person can store a huge amount of data because unlike hard drives, the tracks in these drivers are laid on top of each other so no distance exists between the two tracks. This helped increase the data storage capacity by 25%.

References

  1. backblaze.com. (2015). Data Storage Technologies of the Future. [online] Available at: https://www.backblaze.com/blog/data-storage-technologies-of-the-future/ [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
  2. AbriefHistory, (2014). A Brief History of Data Storage PART 1. [online] YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_Msl2u4mJc [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
  3. SeagateTechnology, (2013). Seagate SMR (Shingled Magnetic Recording) Technology Increases Drive Capacity. [online] YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3UFUfv9n420 [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
  4. BitByte, (2015). What are Helium Hard Drives?. [online] YouTube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKvUcV1cNI0 [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
  5. com. (n.d.). What is Data Storage? – Definition from Techopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/23342/data-storage [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
  6. Marketing Donut. (n.d.). Storage devices and media. [online] Available at: http://www.itdonut.co.uk/it/computer-hardware/storage-devices-and-media [Accessed 13 Mar. 2016].
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